Make editors slightly moist


Happiness comes out of contentment, and contentment always comes out of service.
--Harbhajan Singh Yogi

There is no easy walk to freedom anywhere, and many of us will have to pass through the valley of the shadow of death again and again before we reach the mountaintop of our desires.
--Nelson Mandela

There are no happy endings in history, only crisis points that pass.
--Isaac Asimov

From me to you

My download area is accessible via HTTPS/HTTP at It provides -latest symbolic links, e.g., s-web42-latest.tar.gz.asc. The  git(1) repositories are hosted via HTTPS and HTTP at; To clone, replace /cgit/ with /scm/, as in (You could wait five minutes after reading this before cloning from scratch.) Most projects are mirrored for free under my account at  sdaoden@, and some are also available under the nice and clean interface of  repo.or.czthank you! uses the  GNU Mailman mailing-list manager, so users can manage their settings either via web browser by going to, or by sending a mail with only the content help to A receive-only very low-volume announcement list covering all my projects is S-announce at lists dot sdaoden dot eu.

I maintain a port collection for  Crux Linux with a few additional little things which are not available by default.

S - n a i l (later S - m a i l x) — v14.9.17 (“To bind, or not to bind..”), 2020-02-02
Announcement  <>  .tar.xz / .tar.xz.asc  <>  .tar.gz / .tar.gz.asc  <>  Manual
ML s-mailx@ with archive (also at  The Mail Archive, and via gmane.mail.s-mailx.general, thanks!)
Repository{cgit,scm}/s-nail.git, branches [master,stable/{stable,latest},release/{stable,latest},(timeline),(unix-mail),(bsd-Mail),(next)]
Commit logs of [master,stable/*,release/*] are posted to s-mailx-commit@
Repository mirror:      Coverity Scan:  S-nail (project 444)

S-nail provides a simple and friendly environment for sending and receiving mail. It is intended to provide the functionality of the POSIX  mailx(1) ( Wikipedia) command, but is MIME capable and optionally offers extensions for line editing, S/MIME, SMTP and POP3, among others. It divides incoming mail into its constituent messages and allows the user to deal with them in any order. [Image: S-mailx heraldic animal] It offers many COMMANDS and INTERNAL VARIABLES for manipulating messages and sending mail. It provides the user simple editing capabilities to ease the composition of outgoing messages, as well as providing the ability to define and send to names which address groups of users, and increasingly powerful and reliable non-interactive scripting capabilities.

S-nail ships with  KaOS. I am happy and prowd that  “Fossies” — the Fresh Open Source Software Archive  included S-nail in its software collection that sails so close to the wind! And Packages or recipes exist, sometimes under the name mailx. Always up-to-date versions seem to be available at  archlinux ( Wiki),  Crux,  FreeBSD,  Gentoo,  OSUKISS, and  Slackware, as well as macOS (via  Homebrew or  MacPorts). Lagging behind a bit, also due to project policies and release cycles, are  Debian and deriviates, and  OpenBSD. At various levels of actuality are  Alpine Linux,  Funtoo, and  The Void (Linux) distribution, as well as Gavin  AUR (s-nail-git).

There are no prerequisites but a normal Unix environment (make(1), an ISO C89 C compiler etc.) and it is also possible to work directly with a repository checkout. The repository layout has been extended after release v14.8.10, and is documented in the projects README file. Users which are only interested in stable changes, but which do not want to wait for releases to gain, e.g., bugfix commits, should probably track only the [stable/stable] branch. Users which also accept backward incompatible changes can track [master], it will eventually be used to create new major or minor releases. To clone the entire repository and locally select what you want, do

 $ git clone
 $ cd s-nail
 $ git checkout master
 $ make CONFIG=MAXIMAL tangerine

It is possible to save a quite a bit of disk space. With a newer  git(1) you can say

 $ git clone --single-branch -b stable/stable \

But even otherwise you can be selective:

 $ mkdir s-nail.git
 $ cd s-nail.git
 $ git init
 $ git remote add origin -t stable/stable -t 'release/*' -t timeline \
 $ git fetch -v
m d o c m x — v2, 2015-05-12
Code is part of S-roff  <>  Manual
 groff(1) enhancement request:

The mdoc(7) manual semantic markup language does not support any kind of anchoring: whereas you can exactly state what x is whenever you refer to it – variable, function etc. –, you have no option to define the exact place where x is itself defined, or whether it is at all defined in a given manual page.

Also, whereas mdoc(7) does support differentiation in between anchors and references for headlines (.Sh / .Ss and .Sx, respectively), referencing a headline is only of notational interest, the reference is in no way “active”, never.

mdocmx(7) extends mdoc(7) by adding all the missing functionality and more, including (dependent on the output device) referencable external manuals, with a single new multiplexer command: .Mx.

And because non-multipass troff(1) implementations are not capable to generate forward references to anchors not yet defined there is a preprocessor necessary to circumvent this problem: mdocmx(1), implemented in portable sh(1) and awk(1). (A nice property of mdocmx(7) is that it “knows” whether a document has been preprocessed or not, therefore making it possible to distribute preprocessed manuals and still being backward- and forward-compatible.)

For extended user control all parts of the usual manual pipeline require the environment variable MDOCMX_ENABLE=1 to be set to a non-empty value (it must be non-empty because of  groff(1) deficiencies). E.g., on a system where  groff(1) as well as  less(1) have been patched to support mdocmx(7), the following shell functions could be used to read mdoc(7) manuals directly (use ^A, i.e., control-A in less(1) to jump to anchors or read external manuals):

 mdoc() { (
   : ${MDOCMXFLAGS:=-dmx-toc-force=tree} "${1}" |
   groff -Tutf8 -mdoc ${MDOCMXFLAGS} |
   LESS= less --RAW-CONTROL-CHARS --ignore-case --no-init
 ) }

How does it work?

For output devices like HTML or PDF mdocmx(7) will use the corresponding and well-known support troff(1) macro packages to generate anchor and reference information.

For the TTY output device (grotty(1) in  groff(1)) it will inject context information (anchor?, link? and their name) directly via a new troff(1) \X'' command; The TTY output device therefore needs to be extended in order to understand this new command. The context information will then be written to the PAGER as backspace-escaped text — since on Unix backspace-escaped sequences are used to create manual page style formatting information (bold text, text underlining, etc.) since decades, most tested pagers are able to silently ignore those sequences. (Despite the fact that “backspace” is the control character to delete the character before it.)

If the Pager has been extended to actually interpret the backspace-escaped sequences as anchor and reference context information, it can use its normal search facilities to search for anchors and could also offer the possibility to startup man(1) to follow external manual page references.

Note that due to the way that mdoc(7) is implemented section and subsection headers may not contain macro recursions. Please see the referenced  groff(1) enhancement request for more on this; the next mdocmx(7) iteration will generate warnings for such use cases (at least in the preprocess); just as stated in the enhancement request mdoc(7) itself has to be rewritten in order to overcome this restriction.

S - r o f f — working on it
Repository{cgit,scm}/s-roff.git, branches [master,stable/{stable,latest},release/{stable,latest},(next)]
Commit logs of [master,stable/*,release/*] s-roff-commit@
Repository mirror:

S-roff is a text processor that formats text. It accepts lines of text interspersed with lines of format control information and formats the text into a printable, paginated document having a user-designed style. S-roff offers unusual freedom in document styling: arbitrary style headers and footers; arbitrary style footnotes; multiple automatic sequence numbering for paragraphs, sections, etc; multiple column output; dynamic font and point-size control; arbitrary horizontal and vertical local motions at any point; and a family of automatic overstriking, bracket construction, and line-drawing functions.

S-roff is a fork of  groff(1), stripped-down to not include any related facility, the output devices grolj4 and grolbp as well as most contributed packages. The fork happened on the last commit that is still GPL2 licensed (1.19.2-574-gecbf4f1), but almost all changes up to and including v1.22.3 are included, as well as further bug reports.

The plan is to make it UTF-8 clean all through the toolchain, to make it more user friendly, e.g., by adding automatic detection of required preprocessors. Nonetheless keeping backward compatibility and accessibility of individual subcomponents, like nroff, troff and all the preprocessors. [Image: S-roff logo -- magnolia night] I would like to see the manual all in manual pages (mdoc). I really would like to have builtin support for TTF/OTF fonts. All of this is mid– to long–term.

First i will completely rework the build system and adapt [Image: It still takes a while] this codebase to not need any autotool, but only the shell and make, just the same easy way as is used for S-nail, then perform a lot of rather invisible but desired code overhauling, like implementing consistent argument parsing etc. I hope this step can be finished in summer 2018, followed by an early initial release.

S - W e b 4 2 — v0.9.2, 2019-07-19
.tar.gz.asc / .tar.gz  <>  Manual
Repository{cgit,scm}/s-web42.git, branch [master]

One more option to manage your website. A camel approach to website building.  vim(1) and it actually generated what you are looking at.

S - S y m O b j — v0.8.2, 2016-10-24
.tar.gz.asc / .tar.gz (via  CPAN)  <>  Manual
Repository{cgit,scm}/s-symobj.git, branch [master]

Throw an eye on my Symbol table and Object  perl(1) module, it offers a somewhat easy symbol table and object creation/management. It is also available in the  Comprehensive Perl Archive Network.

I am using  perl(1) since 1997 in many projects and for a lot of purposes. In all that time i have not found a single bug! Hoooray and thanks,  perl(1) porters!

S - C T e x t — early alpha on 2013-07-06 (and 2017-12-14)
Repository{cgit,scm}/s-ctext.git, branches [master,(next)]
Commit logs of [master] are posted to s-ctext-commit@

Unix / POSIX continues to be byte-based, slowly drifting towards the byte-based UTF-8 multibyte character set. But the C and POSIX standards do not offer any option to work on multibyte character data except by first converting it into wide character strings. [Image: S-CText logo -- Spring] This means that expensive and most often completely redundant round-trip conversions are necessary, even for the most simple tasks.

Furthermore,  Unicode defines multi-codepoint characters — characters that are composed out of multiple codepoints, so-called graphems (see  Unicode Text Segmentation), many of which do not have a precomposed single-codepoint representation. Neither ISO C nor POSIX define an interface that can deal with these sequences-of-codepoints that form a single character.

S-CText provides a programming interface that addresses these problems. It offers sets of string functions which deal with (possible) multibyte strings in the encoding of the / a LC_CTYPE locale (sct_ prefix function family, optional) as well as with UTF-8 encoded strings (sut_ prefix function family). In addition the internal representation of the Unicode character database can be accessed (sud_ prefix function family). And there is an optional character set conversion interface (scc_ prefix function family).

Expect a first usable version ... before 2025. (It has to rock!)

S - T o o l b o x
Repository{cgit,scm}/s-toolbox.git, branch [master]

The README as of 2020-02-04:

A repo of some small tools

Somewhat useful:

   For my use cases i find it annoying that "entropy_avail" is not
   incremented when i restore the saved random seed that machines have
   collected so hard.  This little program touches this count also.

   2019-01-21: Small fixes, and take care for EAGAIN (Bernd Petrovitsch).
   2019-01-24: use syslog(3) instead; also test EBUSY (Bernd Petrovitsch).
   2019-01-25: add comment regarding interaction with haveged etc.
   2019-05-30: jump more directly; add a XXX on file creation.
   "Adaptive", more generic, and much more easily adaptable successor of  For now with simulator and MacBook Air model support.
   See the script header for more.
   2019-04-09: add a SIGTSTP handler which only stops fans.
   Find an executable command within a POSIX shell.
   which(1) is not standardized, and command(1) -v may return non-executable,
   so here is how it is possible to really find a usable executable file.
   Thanks to Robert Elz (kre).

   2019-02-05: truly support presets again (e.g. "awk=nawk TESTFUN ...").
   2019-03-07: fix brain damage.
   To ease maintaining of topic branches i use a linear history, so
   that i can use ``$ git rebase -i`` for fixups and squashes, without
   having to worry about recreation of topic branches.  Instead i tag
   commit messages, and use this script to create the topics once i am
   finished.  Read the --help output for more, and make use of verbosity
   when you use it first.

   2013-09-13: newer git(1) reverse ``rev-parse`` output: adjusted.
   Download NNTP articles from and, incrementally, and
   store them in (append them to) a local MBOX.
   Read and adjust the script header for documentation and configuration.
   2017-07-24: add support for multiple servers and add
   Round trip quote strings in POSIX (and elder) shell(s).
   Thanks to Robert Elz (kre).

   2019-05-27: ensure outer driver(s) do not leak variabes (Steven Penny)
   Control a ZTE modem (MF79 and many others according to web search)
   from the command line.  Needs curl(1) and OpenSSL(1).
   2018-12-26: "login" now asks until there is a password, but PASSWORD=
               could still be set to avoid that.

You likely do not wanna know:

   Offers some automatized operations on revision control repositories,
   like updating, (fast-forward) merging, garbage-collecting.
   My private backup script.  Simple (uses tar(1)), but does some stuff
   which i need for my work flow (backups data which is in local repo
   clones but not yet pushed to their "real" counterparts).  Needs perl(1).
   P.S.: it is fantastic to have a filesystem with snapshots thats can be
   "send" in addition!
   2016-08-27: FIX faulty xarg/tar -c invocations (Ralph Corderoy)
   2019-04-14: change builtin path set, and $OUTPUT_DIR.
   2019-05-10: extend exclude glob.
   Simple script to deal with BTRFS snapshots.

   2019-04-25: rewritten to work with /root/$HOSTNAME/btrfs-snapshot
               configuration files, and added some primitives.  Code neater.
               E.g., "HOSTNAME=stickname sync-to-cwd /X".
   2019-04-29: tweak latter: now "receive-ball" everywhere.
               Also do not expand all the ball, but only dir to work with.
   2019-09-29: allow directories as arguments to receive-ball.

   FreeBSD 5.3 x86 prog to open/close /dev/cdrom tray.  May work on
   newer ones, but have not tried it in a while.  It had 416 object
   file bytes when everything was placed in ``.text`` (no .EH frames
   back then).

   Creates a shell archive similar to uushar as below, except that the
   archive (1) consists only of executable file members, and (2) will
   be itself executable.  Run it (the generated shell archive script)
   to invoke any of the programs contained therein.  On the first run,
   the wrapper will create a hidden directory in your $TMPDIR to unpack
   the archive members therein.  Run without arguments to show its
   contents and the creation date.
   It needs no manual, simply execute it and it will guide you through
   the archive creation process.

   Note that the uudecode(1) program must be capable of decoding to
   /dev/stdout, i.e., it must be POSIX compliant (Issue 6 iirc).
   2016-01-05: port to FreeBSD: uudecode(1) does not honour /dev/stdout
               in-stream, so give -o command line option.
   A _real_ periodic for NetBSD, FreeBSD, DragonFly BSD and OpenBSD that
   ensures that the daily/weekly/monthly maintenance stuff is executed,
   even if your laptop is running only one hour a day.  Invoke this once
   per hour in the roots crontab and disable the usual periodic stuff of
   your system instead.  Note it does not deal with timezone and DST
   (daylight saving time) switches, but instead only checks the day of
   the year that is reported by date(1).  E.g., on my FreeBSD 10.0 box::

      # do daily/weekly/monthly maintenance
      15  * * * * root /usr/bin/nice -n 15 /usr/libexec/
      #1  3 * * * root periodic daily
      #15 4 * * 6 root periodic weekly
      #30 5 1 * * root periodic monthly
   2017-08-05: oh, fix the latter mess!  No more sleeps there, too?

uushar (manual in uushar.1):
   Writes a sh(1) shell script to the standard output which will
   recreate the file hierarchy specified by the command line operands.
   Directories will be recreated and must be specified before the files
   they contain.  Compared to the well-known shar(1) program, uushar(1)
   adds optional compression and an uuencode(1)/uudecode(1) binary
   safe layer::

      $ uushar [-(Z|z|J|j)] file ...

   It is easy to insert trojan horses into uushar files.  It is thus
   strongly recommended that all shell archive files be examined before
   running them through sh(1).  Archives produced using this
   implementation of uushar may be easily examined with the command::

      $ grep '^[^X#]' shar.file

   Note that the uudecode(1) program must be capable of decoding to
   /dev/stdout, i.e., it must be POSIX compliant (Issue 6 iirc).
   2016-01-05: port to FreeBSD: uudecode(1) does not honour /dev/stdout
               in-stream, so give -o command line option.
               mdocmx(7)ified++ manual.

# s-it-mode
S - M u s i c b o x
Repository{cgit,scm}/s-musicbox.git, branch [master]

A complete rewrite of our internal rather shitty jukebox, that managed to encapsulate HTML interface, CGI server side (TCP server using MPG321 remote control for playback), ripping (split on CDROM size boundaries with best fit, and that was the best feature of it) in a single script. It only supported MP3 (lame(1), that is). It ran (and still runs) on Linux and FreeBSD. Its database (using a lout-style trigger followed by a content line) did not store much information about recordings:


 # [PLAYTIME(0000:00.00 string..)] TAB [COMMENT] NL

 # [PLAYTIME(0000:00.00 string)] TAB [GENRE] TAB [COMMENT] NL



Yes, it is really, really odd, but remember it was indeed FILE based and splitted on CDROM size boundaries, so that each CDROM's database had to contain all the information of all files on it. The final database could be gained by cat(1)ing all those together, redundant entries would be removed upon load ...

So it becomes obvious why i actually wanted to have a new musicbox with a more sophisticated database, one that is capable to deal with the odds of classical music. Well, i did and re-ripped all my CDs with the script, which is yet the only ready component of S-Musicbox. Its CDInfo:: class, the one that is responsible for actual CDROM detection and ripping, supports only Mac OS X at the moment, however. It is pretty easy to extend, though. And the is a rather mature program, that i like.

Stale stuff

S - P o s t m a n — v0.4.0-beta7, 2013-01-16

This script was in daily use for SSL-secured POP3 download from mid 2011 until the begin of june 2013, but it has not been completed: please see its README first! ... read the complete documentation.

An unsophisticated end-user mail fetcher, processor and sender; it is easy configurable and offers a pretty good rule matching engine. This application has been written in  Python.

In january 2011 this very project caused me to try Payprout 3000. Since then i stumbled over the discovery of dozens of bugs (in the standard library) and even got involved a little bit on  their bug tracker. Payprout? Yes! (The details perhaps had had a negative influence on the emotional well-being of at least one of the mentioned characters.)

Well, it turns out that i curse the day when i decided that it try Python for this. The basic idea was that a Python installation always ships with the standard library, and that was supposed to already include most things ever needed. But if this projects takes that much longer there will not remain that many stdlib modules being used in the end.

S - X C o n s o l e

S library for (basic) console screen management. This is my free clone of my (our) internal non-free C++ library, which is conversely called Terminal. Different to that with full Unicode support.

It is already finished in theory, but since it requires the S-XSystem library it will take some years until it is really usable. At that time it will be clear whether it runs in practice, too. :-). (P.S.: this simple minded port would not really work with real Unicode characters but only with single Unicode codepoints. The README file talks a bit about that.)

It will be extended once a normal development cycle is possible (P.S.: likely that will never happen as such due to lack of time): there will be (non-overlapping) windows, a single-line-only mode will perhaps be implemented. The drawing mechanism can be improved in respect to performance. And a termcap interface would be a win, too. (I.e., dynamically extending the static builtin database of supported terminals.)

T R 9 n support
 OpenBSD /  OpenSSH

In november 2011 i became the maintainer of the german translations of the  OpenBSD website, and after a lot of work i got synchronized with the tree on 2012-01-22. Because of character deficiencies of Mr. de Raadt the OpenBSD/[de] maintainership was discontinued on 2014-01-24. (P.S.: in the meantime the translation project has been shut down.) Thus the following paragraphs are partially outdated.

I hope i can realize and afford it to provide a uniform style through all pages until the release of OpenBSD 5.7. See DEification for a wordlist of changes that have been applied to [de], or will be applied to it in the future.

Unfortunately i had to drop my anti-german-language-reform attitude after one and a half decade for this maintainership (and only for it), so this reveals that the first paragraph of my homepage is actually a lie. But hey, do you know what: this standard committee currently is and furthermore always was deeply broken! You possibly do not want to see  a photo of the current chairman. But anyway, it is official german, now. (Sob.)

I also did my part to maintain the  daily changelog from the beginning of november 2011 until the end of june 2012; being part of a team that was formed out of the australian-based male Alpha Centaurian Brett Mahar (brett@), the swedish sweetheart Janne Johannson (jj@) and the flying german unionist Ingo Schwarze (schwarze@; all [openbsd DOT org]).

So i finally contribute(d) a little bit to the  OpenBSD and  OpenSSH projects, just as i had promised in 2001 (that could also have been 2002).

From you to me

I love C,  perl(1) and dig plain old sh(1) and awk(1) more and more. I would love C++ (again) if it would be a plain C with classes; maybe not even automatic ctors and dtors. (If i really would go for learning a new language i think i would most likely have a go with  Nim or  Julia. I will however have to and look forward to dig into  Lua.) I have discovered  mksh(1) and use it on all my real-work boxes for years; but  bash is there, too. Whereas  Dropbear SSH is sometimes used for outlined SSH cases, almost all of SSH is driven by the omnipresent  OpenSSH. Since about year 2000 i am a fan (though not a sophisticated user) of  vim(1), it gave up in an endless loop twice. I am thankful for being able to use  git(1) for version control today, after a lot of distress with other VCSs.

When on X(1) i was used to run the fantastic  ahwm(1) window manager from about 2002/3 to November 2018, may Alex Hioreanu himself refer to it as historical or not; but ... i am now using  cwm(1). Because i mostly stay within the  tmux(1) terminal multiplexer, to which i have switched (back) after about six years of using  screen(1), i am satisfied with the minimalistic  st(1) terminal —  rxvt-unicode and its server mode served me very well before that.  lynx(1) for browsing if text based browsing is possible, thus decreasingly often, which i dislike, and  Firefox (pre-compiled) otherwise. Mail messages are being passed through  bogofilter for Bayesian filtering, i have written and use a  LMDB backend for and with it. I ended up using solely  groff(1) for document preparation, viewing PDFs with  mupdf(1); i do use from the same source.

It would also not work without enscript, less, curl, openssl, all the compression tools, the filesystems and their tools, dhcpcd, wpa_supplicant, and all the other network tools, multimedia tools like ffmpeg, vorbis-tools, ogg123, sox, faad2, faac, of course xorg, and all the free compilers out there, gcc, clang, pcc and tinyc, and tools surrounding object files.

I am very thankful for being able to use virtual machines via  QEMU: it is so handy to have a bunch of operating systems at hand for immediate testing, just as necessary! I have used  FreeBSD for about ten years, and again since 2015. It and  Crux- Linux with nice SysV init are my development boxes. I am also using  archlinux,  NetBSD,  OpenBSD and  The Void (Linux) distribution, and there are VMs with other systems, like  DragonFly. I am in favour of BSD, it is a complete, self-contained environment, with good and up-to-date documentation. Just like  Crux- Linux.

While looking around for  Unicode aware software i have been pointed to the  Plan9 from Bell Labs operating system, which has been unknown to me before, and its  9atom and  9front extenders, which unfortunately have all died in the meantime, except for the latter; sometimes i wish i would have known Plan9 15 years earlier, and that it would have been licensed under BSD copyright back then, who knows how that relationship would have ended.

This server

The server is driven by the  Alpine Linux operating system (after a month of a quick-and-dirty (via inetd) setup  FreeBSD system) with  tc(8) (iproute2) traffic shaping in combination with an  iptables(8) firewall.  Dnsmasq caches DNS queries.  OpenSSH handles SSH,  OpenNTPD synchronizes the system clock.  Postfix manages SMTP and provides mailing lists via  GNU Mailman. Web pages are served by the  lighttpd web server and  cgit makes the  git(1) repositories accessible via HTTPS/HTTP for browsing purposes. Most services of are secured with a free certificate obtained from  Let's Encrypt, which is managed by cron job via  dehydrated. The server is a VM hosted by  Portunity with the use of green energy.

Copyright (c) 1997 - 2019, Steffen (Daode) Nurpmeso <>
@(#)code.html-w42 1.345 2020-02-04T19:24:41+0000